中国菜名的翻译方法

中国菜名的翻译方法

(1)烹调法+主料(形状)
炒鳝片 Stir-fried Eel Slices
煨牛肉 Simmered Beef
清蒸鳊鱼 Steamed Limande
(2)烹调法+主料(形状)+(with)辅料
蟹粉蒸鱼肚 Stewed Fish Tripe with Crab Meat
腐乳汁烧肉 Braised Pork with Preserved Bean Curd
辣子炒肉丁 Stir-fried Diced Pork with Green Pepper
(3)烹调法+主料(形状)+(with,in)调料
红烧鲤鱼头 Braised Carp Head with Soy Sauce
辣味烩虾球 Braised Prawn Balls With Chilli/Chili Sauce
清炖猪蹄 Stewed Pig Hoof in Clean Soup
2.以主料开头的的翻译方法
有些菜肴名称不反应烹调方法,在不明确制作方法的情况下只需译出其主料,再用介词with或in接其辅料或调料。示例如下:
(1) 主料(形状)+(with)辅料
杏仁鸡丁 Chicken Cubes with Almond
牛肉豆腐 Beef with Beancurd
鸡丝凉面 Cold Noodles with Chicken Shreds[10](P166)
(2) 主料(形状)+(with,in)调料
糖醋鱼 Fish with Sweet and Sour Sauce
椒盐排骨 Spare Ribs with Pepper and Salt[11](P57)
米酒鱼卷 Fish Rolls with Rice Wine
3.以原料形状或口感开头的的翻译方法
这种方法是把原料的形状或口感当作修饰语,放在烹法或主料的前面。示例如下:
(1) 口感+烹法+主料
水煮嫩鱼 Tender Stewed Fish
香煎鸡块 Fragrant Fried Chicken
酥炸芋球 Crisp Deep-fried Taro Ball
(2) 形状(口感)+主料+(with)辅料
陈皮兔丁 Diced Rabbit with Orange Peel
时蔬鸡片 Sliced Chicken with Seasonal Vegetables
冬笋牛肉丝 Fried Beef Shreds with Bamboo Shoots
(3) 形状(口感)+主料+(with) 调料
茄汁鱼片 Sliced Fish with Tomato Sauce
黄酒脆皮虾仁 Crisp Shrimps with Rice Wine Sauce
糖醋咕咾肉 Fried Pork Slices with Sweet and Sour Sauce
(二)、直译+音译法
对于一些有地方特色的名菜,《也谈中菜与主食的英译问题》的作者认为在翻译此类菜名时应采用原料+地名+Style的方法。如湖南肉Pork Hunan Style,麻婆豆腐Bean Curd Sichuan Style等。[12](P57)笔者认为这种方法虽然简洁明了,但翻译时若用“音译地名/人名+直译原料”这种译法可能更有“中国味儿”。如:
东坡肉 Dongpo Braised Pork
宋嫂鱼羹 Songsao Fish Potage
北京烤鸭 Beijing Roast Duck
“其实,就食物,特别是风味食品或特产而言,一定程度的直译是世界各国的约定俗成的办法。无论是汉堡包,冰淇淋,色拉还是jiao- zi,Woolong Tea,Mao-tai都早已被译入国的消费者所接受。”[13](P36)但是这种译法有时也会使不熟悉中国菜的外国食客感到困惑。东坡肉中的 “Dongpo”,宋嫂鱼羹中的“Songsao”,何许人也?碰到喜欢追问究竟的食客,翻译时可采用下面的音译+释意法。
(三)、音译+释意法
“音译(即以汉语拼音代替英文进入菜谱)最为省事,但外国人看不懂,中国人也不一定懂,写了等于没写。“狗不理包子”译为Goubuli Baozi,等于没译。” [14](P12)因此纯粹的音译要尽量避免。另外对于上面提到的直译+音译所碰到的问题,如翻译四川名小吃担担面,在菜名后面可加一段解释的文字。示例如下:
Dan Dan Noodle
This sack is a kind of hot-spiced noodles or spicy peanut noodles.It is favored with a sauce containing dried shrimp, shredded preserved vegetables,crushed roasted peanuts, sesame seeds, chilli oil,soy sauce,vinegar and garlic. Dandan refers to shoulder poles. In the earliest time when a noodle peddler shoulder his pole, he usually carried two baskets on either side as he walked along streets. The baskets contained his noodles and sauce. He sold his noodles to passers-by and residents who lived on the streets. His noodles cost almost nothing, and gradually local people called it Dandan Noodle.[15](P165)
(四)、直译+释意法
对于艺术命名法的菜名,其名称本身既不反映菜的原料,也不反映烹调方法,若要讲清其意义,必须讲述一个故事或一段历史,这在饭桌上翻译人员可以拿来做为活跃气氛的话题。翻译时则先直译出菜名的中文意思,再进行解释。如:
叫化鸡 Beggar’s Chicken—There is a legendary story connected to it. Long long ago there was a beggar. One day he stole a chicken and was pursued by the owner. He was almost caught when he suddenly hit upon a good idea. He smeared the chicken all over with clay, which he found nearby and threw it into the fire he had built to cook it. After a long while the beggar removed the mud-coated from the fire. When he cracked open the clay he found, to his astonishment, that the clay together with the feather had formed a hard shell in which the chicken had been baked into a delicious dish with wonderful flavour. That night he had a very enjoyable meal. Hence the name of the dish.[16] (P57)
佛跳墙 The Buddhist monk jumping over the wall—Ingredients used for the casserole are all delicacies of Chinese cooking: shark’s fin, sea cucumber, abalone, dried scallop, ham, chicken, duck, lamb, bamboo shoots, mushrooms and various spices. These are sealed inside the casserole and boiled for long hours, ensuring the essence of each ingredient is being extracted. Thus, besides the wonderful taste, the casserole also has high nutritive values.[17](P304) The meaning of “the Buddhist monk jumping over the wall” is that, this dish is so delicious that the Buddhist monk can not help to jump over the wall and have a taste.
(五)、直译+注释法
药膳是中国传统饮食疗法之一,也是饮食文化的重要特色;药膳既有营养作用,又有防治疾病和强身健体的功效,因此颇受外国食客的欢迎。对于药膳的翻译,应能译出它的原料和烹法,此外还应译出其主要药理作用,以便不熟悉中国饮食文化的外国友人选择和品尝。
雪耳龙眼汤 White Fungus and Shelled Longan Soup (with the function of improving lungs and preventing anemia)
双鞭壮阳汤 Ox-tail Soup (with the function of being more energetic)
天麻炖乌鸡 Stewed Pheasant with Gastrodia (with the function of preventing
dizziness and curing headache)
银杏子鸡丁 Braised Diced Young Chicken with Gingko (with the function of strenthening liver and spleen)
西洋参冬虫夏草焖子鸡 Stewed Squab with American Ginseng and Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (with the function of tonic and tranquilizer)[18](P26)
这里一个需要注意的问题是中国菜中有时会用到动物的外生殖器,如上面的“双鞭壮阳汤”,“其中的‘鞭’字是为了求雅,直表其意会使西人大倒胃口,译为‘ox-whip’又不能表达什么意思,因此可以含蓄的译为‘ox-tail’ 。” [19]
(六)、意译法
有时人们根据菜的主料和配料色或形的特点,或烹调后总体造型给菜肴取个吉祥如意的典雅名称,对于这类艺术命名法或虚实命名法的菜名一般采用意译,舍形或舍音求意,将其原料和烹法照实译出。如“狮子头”若直译为Lion Head,极易使外国不懂窍的中餐食客发生误会,以为他不得不鼓起勇气去啃“兽中之王”的脑袋。[20](P12)因此江苏名菜中的蟹粉狮子头就可译为 Crab Meat and Minced Pork Ball in Casserole。[21](P303)其他示例如下:
发财好市,即发菜煮嚎豉,人们喜欢在新春佳节品尝这道菜,以祈求“发财”、“好生意”。因为“发菜”和“嚎豉”跟 “发财”、“好市”谐音。因此这道菜可以译为:Black Moss Cooked with Oysters[22](P33)
蚂蚁上树,即肉末粉丝,可译为:Bean Vermicelli with Spicy Meat Sauce。
一卵孵双凤 ,即把炖好的两只鸡装入挖空果肉的西瓜壳中,把西瓜比为卵,把鸡比为凤,译为: Steamed Chicken in Water Melon。
但如果全部舍形或舍音求意似乎过分朴实无华,且没有美感和情趣,还有个折中的办法就是先照实译出此类菜名的中文意思,再用意译的方法让客人了解其原料烹法。例如“老少平安”,[23](P55)翻译的时候先译成“Peace to Young and Old”,然后再介绍是“Stewed Beancurd with Fish”。但用这种方法要注意做好文化处理。“例如‘龙虎斗’这道菜,如果先说The dragon fighting against the tiger,对于不了解中国文化的外国友人来说肯定会大倒胃口,因为‘龙’在中国是吉祥的象征,但在西方文化中却是凶狠的恶魔。而虎又是保护动物。 ”[24](P55)这道菜的原料是蛇肉和猫肉,应该译为Stewed snake and wild cat。
(七)、转译法
严格说来,转译法也是属于意译的一种。中菜中有些菜肴名称的部分术语用表示吉祥喜庆等典雅行话和术语来表达,这对于缺乏中国文化背景知识的外国客人来讲是难于理解其深刻含义的。吴伟雄在其《中式菜谱英译浅谈》中也提到了菜谱上某些原料的“转译”问题,并举了例子:例如“凤凰栗米羹”中的“凤凰”就不能译成英语意为长生鸟的“凤凰”(phoenix)了。“凤 ”者,“鸡”也,“凰”与“鸡黄”的“黄”同音。有经验的翻译,是会将“凤凰”转译为“鸡蛋”再译为egg的。粤菜中的“西湖牛肉羹”中的“西湖”,也须先转译为“鸡蛋”才能译出egg的真面目。这大概是蛋在汤中使人联想起杭州西湖的“三潭印月”吧。[25](P33)由此看来翻译此类菜名要求译者对中菜原料的一些“行话引语”要有相当的了解,不然也只得向厨师或服务员请教了。
炒双冬 Fried Saute Mushrooms and Bamboo Shoots
冬瓜云腿 Sliced Yunnan Ham with White Gourd
翡翠虾仁 Stir-fried Shelled Shrimps with Peas
凤爪炖甲鱼 Steamed Turtle and Chicken’s Feet Soup
百花酿北菇 Mushrooms Stuffed with Minced Shrimps

在中餐菜名翻译成英文的过程中,可以采用多种不同的方法,而且每一道菜都可以从不同的角度入手进行翻译。例如,川菜中的“宫保鸡丁”这道菜就有以下几种译法:
Sauteed Chicken Cubes with Peanuts
Diced Chicken with Chili and Peanuts
Fried Diced Chicken in Sichuan Style
Grand Duke’s Chicken with Peanuts[26](P11)
Gong Bao Chicken[27](P11)
Kung Pao Chicken[28](P11)
Spicy Diced Chicken with Peanuts[29](P11)
Chicken with Hot Peppers and Peanuts[30](P11)
由此可见,中餐菜名的英译方法是灵活多变的。至于我们在翻译中最终采用哪种方法,则可根据各人的习惯和具体情况确定。
中国菜的菜单就如同一本厚厚的诗集,蕴藏了中国博大精深的饮食文化,很多菜都有自己的历史和故事。如何跨越文化和语言的差异,准确并生动地翻译好中菜菜名,可以说是一门大学问。它值得我们去努力探讨和发现,找到最佳的翻译方法,让中国的美食与文化在世界上绽放自己的光彩。

( From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia )

一、以菜肴的主料和配料为主的菜名  
  1、辣子鸡丁,Sauté pork cubes with chili or hot pepper
  2、榨菜肉丝,Shredded pork and hot pickled mustard greens
  3、扁豆肉丝,Shredded pork and French beans
  4、青椒肉丝,Shredded pork and green pepper
  5、鸭翅膀,Duck wing tips
  6、豌豆黄,Pea puree cake
  7、馅饼,Pancake with meat fillings or meat-filled pancake
  8、汤面,Noodles with soup or soup noodles
  9、青豆鸡丁汤,Soup of chicken cubes with green peas wow gold
  10、三鲜汤,Three–fresh soup或 soup of three delicacies
  11、清汤鱼肚,Consommé(Clear soup) of fish maw
  12、冬瓜汤,Consommé(Clear soup) of white gourd
  13、西红柿鸡蛋汤,Tomato and egg soup
  14、肉丝海带汤,Soup of shredded meat with kelps wow gold
  15、素鸡汤,Clear chicken soup
  16、白菜汤,Chinese cabbage soup
  17、肉片汤,Sliced pork soup
  18、榨菜肉丝汤,Soup with shredded pork and hot pickled mustard greens
  19、丸子汤,Meat-ball soup
  20、酸辣汤,Hot and sour soup
  21、黄瓜鸡片汤,Soup of cucumber with chicken slices
  22、豆汁,Fermented sour milk made from ground mung bean wow gold
  23、冬菇猪蹄,Pig’s trotter with mushrooms
  24、肉蓉青豆,Fried green peas with minced pork
  25、咖喱牛肉片,Sliced beef in curry sauce
  26、蚝油牛肉片,Sauté beef slices in oyster sauce
  27、葱头牛肉丝,Shredded beef with onions
  28、咖喱鸡,Chicken in curry sauce
  29、桃仁鸡丁,Sauté chicken cubes with walnuts
  30、南荠鸡片,Sauté chicken slices with water chestnuts
  31、栗子鸡,Stewed chicken with chestnuts
  32、茶叶蛋,Boiled eggs with tea-leafs
  33、番茄大虾,Prawns with tomato sauce
  34、茄汁虾球,Fried prawn balls with tomato sauce
  35、蟹肉鱼肚,Stewed fish maw with crab meat wow gold
  36、豆浆,Soya bean milk
  37、豆腐乳(腐乳,酱豆腐),Fermented bean curd
  38、豆腐,汉语拼音doufu, 或bean curd
  39、冬菇菜心, Cabbage heart with mushrooms
  40、冬菇油菜,Sauté rape with mushrooms
  
  二 、以菜肴的主料和烹饪方法为主的菜名  
  1、叉烧肉,Grilled pork
  2、回锅肉,Twiced-cooked pork slices in hot sauce 或 boiled and fried pork slices
  3、炒杂碎,Chop suey,海外华人餐馆里一直这样用,已经被正式编入美国《韦伯斯特新世界大学词典》(Webster’s new world college dictionary)
  4、清汤燕窝,Consommé of swallow nest
  5、清汤银耳,Consommé of white fungus
  6、清汤银耳鹌鹑蛋,Consommé of white fungus with quail eggs
  7、清汤鲍鱼,Consommé of abalone
  8、拔丝苹果,Crisp(rock) sugar-coated apple or toffee apple
  9、拔丝香蕉,Crisp(rock) sugar-coated banana or toffee banana
  10、炒面条,Fried noodles
  11、烧饼,Baked cake in griddle
  12、核桃酪,Walnut tea
  13、杏仁豆腐,Almond curd, almond junket
  14、银耳羹,Broth of white fungus
  15、中国发糕(山西蒸馍),Steamed Chinese sponge cake
  16、凉拌粉皮(丝),Cold sheet jelly (made of bean or potato starch) (vermicelli) with mustard and meat shreds
  17、鸡油冬笋(扁豆),Sauté bamboo shoots (French beans)in chicken oil
  18、油焖鲜蘑,Braised fresh mushrooms
  19、鸡蛋炒韭菜,Sauté eggs with leek
  20、茶叶蛋,Boiled eggs with tea-leafs
  21、白斩鸡,Boiled -sliced cold chicken
  22、芥末拌鸭掌,Cold duck webs mixed with mustard
  23、冬笋炒肉丝,Sauté shredded pork with bamboo shoots
  24、米粉蒸肉,Steamed pork with rice flour
  25、炒里脊丝,Sauté pork fillet shreds
  26、酱爆肉(鸡)丁,Sauté pork(chicken)cubes with soya paste
  27、炒腰花,Sauté pork kidney
  28、熘肝尖,Quick-fried liver
  29、醋熘(辣)白菜, Starch-coated quick-fried Chinese cabbage with vinegar(hot pepper) wow gold
  30、干炸丸子,Deep-fried meat balls
  31、红烧肘子,Braised(or red stewed) pork leg(upper part of pork leg) in brown sauce,
  32、软炸里脊,Soft-fried pork fillet
  33、油熘里脊,Sauté fillet with white sauce
  34、瓤冬瓜,Stuffed-steamed white gourd
  35、红烧扣肉,Braised sliced pork in brown sauce
  36、红烧羊肉,Braised mutton in brown sauce
  37、葱爆羊肉,Stir-fried mutton slices with Chinese onion or green scallion
  38、烤羊肉串,Mutton shashlik
  39、炸鸡卷,Fried chicken rolls
  40、糖炒栗子,北京特产,Roasted chestnuts in sugar-coated heated sand
  41、红扒鸡(鸭),Braised chicken(duck) in brown sauce.
  42、红烧全鸡,Stewed whole chicken in brown sauce
  43、口蘑蒸鸡(鸭),Steamed chicken(duck) with truffle(fresh mushrooms)
  44、清蒸全鸡(鸭),Steamed whole chicken(duck) in clear soup
  45、清蒸鲤鱼,Steamed carp
  46、砂锅鸡,Cooked chicken in casserole
  47、炸鸭肝(胗),Deep-fried duck liver(gizzards)
  48、红烧松鸡,Braised grouse in brown sauce
  49、炒山鸡片, Sauté pheasant slices
  50、北京烤鸭,已经被编入美国英语词典(Webster’s new world college dictionary),Roasted Beijing duck
  51、干烧大虾,Fried prawns with hot brown sauce
  52、干烧桂鱼,Fried mandarin fish with hot brown sauce
  53、红烧大虾(鱼),Stewed prawns(fish) in brown sauce
  54、红烧鱼翅,Braised shark’s fin in brown sauce
  55、红烧鲍鱼,Stewed abalone with brown sauce
  56、红烧海参,Stewed sea cucumber
  57、蚝油鲍鱼,Braised abalone with oyster oil
  58、鸡丝鱼翅,Stewed shark’s fin with chicken shreds
  59、软炸大虾,Starch-coated soft-fried prawns
  60、清炒虾仁,Sauté shrimp meat
  61、糟熘鱼片,Fried fish slices with wine sauce
  62、烧元鱼,Braised turtle meat
  63、烧三鲜,sauté of three delicacies(Three freshes)
  64、海参烧鱼肚,Sauté sea cucumber and fish maw
  65、栗子烧白菜,Sauté Chinese cabbage with chestnuts
  66、油酥火烧,Shortened -crisp cakes
  67、西法大虾,就是软炸大虾,Starch-coated deep-fried prawns in French way
  68、汽锅鸡 就是蒸鸡,Steamed chicken in casserole
  69、烤乳猪,Roasted sucking pig or Roasted baby pig
  
  三、以主料和味道为主  
  1、麻辣牛肉,Sauté beef with hot pepper and Chinese prickly ash
  2、糖醋里脊,Fried pork fillet in sweet and sour sauce
  3、糖醋鱼,Sweet and sour fish
  4、麻辣豆腐,Sauté bean curd with hot pepper and Chinese prickly ash
  5、怪味鸡,multi-flavored 或Fancy-flavoured chicken
  6、五香花生米(鸡),Spiced peanuts(chicken)
  7、酸菜(大白菜,中国特有蔬菜)Fermented sour or pickled Chinese cabbage
  8、酸甜辣黄瓜条,Sweet-sour and chili cucumber slips
  9、鱼香肉丝,Sauté shredded pork in hot sauce, or sauté of fish flavored shredded pork
  10、香酥(琵琶)鸡腿,加味后,先蒸后炸。这个菜是中国驻外使领馆举行招待会时经常上的菜肴,往往在腿根部再加上一块红纸,以便客人用手拿着吃,很受欢迎。Spiced-steamed and deep-fried (pipa-shaped)crisp chicken legs(Pipa is a Chinese musical instrument)。美国人称琵琶鸡腿为“鼓槌鸡腿” Chicken drum stick
  11、椒盐鱼,Deep-fried fish served with salt pepper
  12、臭豆腐,Preserved smelly bean curd
  
  四、半形象化的菜名  
  1、金钱鱼肚中的金钱是香菇,可译成Fish maw with mushrooms。
  2、柿汁龙须菜中的龙须菜是芦笋,可以译为 sauté asparagus with tomato sauce
  3、宫保鸡(肉)丁或花生仁鸡丁,Sauté chicken(pork) cubes with hot pepper and deep-fried crisp peanuts
  4、宫保大虾,Sauté prawns with hot sauce
  5、酱爆肉丁,Sauté pork cubelets with soya paste
  6、木须肉,是肉片木耳炒鸡蛋,Sauté pork slices with eggs and fungus
  7、春卷,汉语拼音,Chunjuan or spring rolls。这道菜深受外国人欢迎,在驻外使领馆举行的招待会上,几乎上多少,吃多少。
  8、肉龙,就是蒸发面肉卷,Steamed rolls with meat inside or steamed meat-filled rolls
  9、玉米、栗子面窝头,中国特有,用汉语拼音Wotou, steamed pagoda-shaped bread made of corn flour or chestnut flour, or steamed dome-shaped bread made of corn flour
  10、什锦冷盘,Assorted cold dishes or assorted hor d’oeuvre
  11、什锦火锅,Mixed meat hot-pot
  12、海鲜火锅,Seafood hot-pot
  13、松花蛋,中国特产,Preserved eggs,或limed eggs或 fossilized eggs
  14、豆苗芙蓉汤,Consommeé of of egg- white with bean sprouts
  15、古老肉,就是酸甜肉,是深受西方人喜爱的大众菜肴,也能登大雅之堂,Sweet and sour pork
  16、栗子花篮,是用栗子面做成的花篮,很早被外国人译成“北京的尘土”,Peking(Beijing)dust。这个译名可能是从西餐的奶油栗子粉(Peking dust)演变而来的。
  17、西瓜花篮,是把西瓜加工成花篮形状,里面放各种时鲜水果,Basket -shaped Water melon shaped like a basket filled with assorted fresh fruits
  18、红烧狮子头,直译狮子的头,Lion’s head,是先炸后炖的大丸子,加注:Deep-fried red-stewed big meat balls like lion’s head
  19、芙蓉鸡片,用鸡蛋和淀粉浸过的鸡片,经油炸或油煸之后,样子像芙蓉花,Fried egg-and starch coated chicken slices look like cottonrose hibiscus
  20、黑白菜,东北著名菜肴,是黑木耳炒白菜,Sauté Chinese cabbage with black fungus
  21、樟茶鸭,熏过的鸭子颜色类似樟、茶色,Smoked duck
  22、蟹肉龙须菜,龙须菜是芦笋,Sauté crab meat and asparagus
  23、麻婆豆腐,这是一个类似成语的大众菜肴,最好用汉语拼音,Mapo-doufu,再加注英文:Bean curd invented by a pockmarked woman(麻脸婆发明的豆腐) ,再解释:Sauté bean curd with minced pork in chili sauce(or hot pepper),在上菜时,再讲故事介绍
  24、豆腐脑,Bean curd jelly served with sauce
  25、豆花儿,Condensed bean curd jelly
  26、腐竹,Rolls of dried bean milk creams
  27、油饼,中国特有食品,汉语拼音,Youbing ,加注: Deep-fried round and flat dough-cake
  28、油条,中国特有食品,汉语拼音,Youtiao ,加注:Deep-fried twisted long dough sticks
  29、麻花,中国特产,汉语拼音,Mahua ,加注:Deep-fried twisted dough, two or three ,entangled together ,very short and crisp
  30、叫花子鸡 可以直译为 Beggar’s chicken ,上菜时讲故事。
  31、狗不理包子,中国特产,用汉语拼音,Goubuli baozi ,加注:Steamed buns filled with vegetables, meat or other ingredients, which, even in the hard days, dogs didn’t eat ,because it wan too oily 。
  32、长寿面,可以直译为longevity noodles,long life noodles
  33、珍珠丸子,不能直译为Pearl balls,会被误解成珍珠做成的圆球。应该译为清汤肉丸子,Meat balls in clear soup
  34、琵琶大虾,这是一个很名贵的菜肴,是把大对虾从中间劈开,保留虾尾,加上配料用油炸,外形酷似琵琶。可译为Pipa shaped deep-fried prawns(Pipa is a Chinese musical instrument)
  
  五、完全形象化的菜名  
  1、饺子,中国特产,用汉语拼音,Jiaozi, 加注dumplings,ravioli。近年来,由于中国与外界的联系日益扩大,出国的中国人,到中国来经商学习的外国人越来越多,作为中华文化载体的中餐必然会随之传播到世界各地。
  2、蒸饺,中国特产,Steamed jiaozi or steamed dumplings,or ravioli
  3、馄饨,云吞,中国特产,用汉语拼音Hutun,yuntu ,海外华人餐馆一直这样用,实际上已经被外国人了解。加注:Mini jiaozi served in soup
  4、元宵,中国特有,用汉语拼音,Yuanxiao ,加注:Filled round balls made of glutinous rice -flour for Lantern Festival
  5、汤圆,中国特有,用汉语拼音,Tangyuan,(filled balls made of glutinous rice flour and served with soup
  6、八宝饭,中国特有,用汉语拼音,Babaofan ,加注: Rice pudding with eight-delicious ingredients
  7、花卷,Steamed rolls
  8、银丝卷,Steamed rolls(bread)look like silver threads
  9、糖葫芦或冰糖葫芦,北京特产,用汉语拼音,Bingtanghulu 加注:Crisp-sugar coated fruit(haws, yam, crab apple ,etc )on a stick.
  10、猫耳朵,山西特产,直译Cat ’s ears, 加注:Steamed cat-ear shaped bread
  11、包子,中国特有,用汉语拼音,Baozi , 加注:Steamed buns with fillings of minced vegetables, meat or other ingredients
  12、龙虎斗,就是蛇肉和猫肉,可以形象地翻译成Battle between dragon and tiger,加注:Stir-fried snake and cat’s meat
  13、驴打滚,属于北京风味小吃,就是年糕卷沾黄豆面,如同驴在黄土地上打滚,非常形象生动,完全可以翻译成D rolling on dust- ground,再加注:Rolls made of glutinous rice flour coated with soybean flour,looks like d rolling on dust-ground.
  14、大丰收,实际上是西餐中的什锦生菜沙拉,这个菜名很有创意。堪称中西结合的典范。但是,只有吃过的人才知道它是什么。可以用汉语拼音,Dafengshou ,Big harvest,再加注:Salad of assorted fresh vegetables